Wrought Iron Work: Beauty and Strength

Wrought iron is a very strong form of iron that has been hammered out, which is very different from cast iron which is molten iron that is poured into a mold and allowed to cool. Wrought iron is a much stronger type of iron, which is why it is used for many different types of applications in the world today. Some of the main uses for wrought iron are for furniture and many different types of decorations.

Wrought iron is extensively used for different types of furniture. Many beds, benches, and other types of furniture are made out of wrought iron. Bar stools are usually made out of wrought iron as well. Wrought iron allows the legs of the stool to be made with a very strong type of metal, but it also allows the legs to have intricate designs worked into them. Wrought iron furniture gives a room a very rustic look, but it also provides a sturdy type of furniture that will last for a very long time. The most popular type of wrought iron furniture is usually a black or dark gray combined with dark wood. Wrought iron furniture can make a room very dark, but it can really pop out with a light paint color. The best thing to do if filling a room with wrought iron furniture is to paint the walls a light neutral color, so that the furniture will stand out.

Another very common use for wrought iron is for a variety of decorations. Wrought iron is a very common material to use to build an outside gate, because of its ability to stand up to the weather, and also the ability to make intricate designs to make the gate very fancy. Wrought iron is also used very much to make a lattice in a garden, because the wrought iron is a great medium for ivy to grow on. The ivy attaches to the wrought iron, and has the ability to climb and twist its way all through the lattice. Many sconces are also made of wrought iron, as well as curtain rods, because it gives a good contrast to the material that the curtains are made from.

Investing in an Apartment Building

One of the most important decisions we will all make is to choose where to live. While some people would rather own their own property, others prefer to rent. However, there are also people who both rent and own their properties at the same time. They live in the apartment building they manage and rent out the rest of the apartments. Finding the best place to live in is a serious task which requires proper research and background information.

What is the latest in hip are renovated farmhouses which have been separated into many apartments. This way the residence might look like a big old house from the outside as it has one main entrance but from the inside you can see that the house is split into separate apartments. From my point of view investing in buying a renovated house is a great business decision. Usually the mortgage is cheap so consider taking one in order to realize this great business plan. Not only will you be able to pay back the mortgage but you will also make a profit from the income you will receive monthly from the renters.

A more traditional apartment building is a large square one with long hallways on each floor and many identical apartments. Some people consider living in such a building an adventure but a risky one. The traditional apartment building has three stories and from fifteen to thirty apartments. Of course, living on any level has its own pros and cons. In case you live in a lower level apartment you will hear your upstairs neighbor's footsteps. If your neighbors have above kids then it could get quite noisy. Thus, it might be better to live in the upper level of a building, though you will have to climb stairs or take an elevator to get to your home. The worst case scenario is to live in a middle apartment in a large apartment building as not only will you have noise from above and below but you will also have to climb the stairs or use lift, as well.

You should not get confused or worried when it comes to choosing the right place to live. You can find the right apartment building which will be comfortable and inexpensive if you do a meticulous research and get some background information.

A Brief History Of The Traveling Funfair

Fairs in this country have a long and ancient history, deeply rooted in tradition.

The word fair is derived from the Latin 'feria', meaning a holiday and at one time the Romans were credited with the introduction of fairs.

It is now generally accepted that their origins are from pagan customs of the people who first settled this land; their seasonal gatherings held for the purposes of both trade and festivity, contained within them the essential elements of the fair.

The Romans did much to promote fairs by improving trade and communications throughout the country.

During the centuries following the departure of the Romans, many fairs and other festivals were incorporated into the calendar of the growing Christian Church. Charters granted by the sovereign gain the fair legal status and an increasing importance in the economic life of the nation.

Merchants and traders from Europe, the Middle East and beyond were drawn to the great chartered fairs of the Middle Ages bringing with them a wealth of goods.

The sheer number of these fairs, no fewer than 4860 were chartered between the years 1200 and 1400, drew not only merchant but entertainers as well: jugglers, musicians and tumblers – the ancestors of today's showmen.

The Black Death of 1348-49 thought about a new kind of fair. In order to stem the rise in wages caused by the shortage of workers, Edward III introduced the Statue of Labourers. This compelled all able bodied men to present themselly for hire at a stipulated wage. These gathering or burning fairs were held mainly around Michealmas, the end of the agricultural year.

By the early eighth century the trading aspects of the charter fairs had waned and most fairs consistently almost entirely of amusements, acrobats, illusionists and theatrical companies all plied their trade on fairgrounds.

Around this time the first fairground rides begin to appear, small crudely constructed out of wood and propelled by gangs of boys.

In 1868, Frederick Savage, a successful agricultural engineer from Kings Lynn, devised a method of driving rides by steam. His invention, a steam engine mounted in the center of the ride was to transform the fairground industry. Freed from the limitations of muscle power, rides could have made larger, more massive and more heavily ornamented. The showman's demand for novelty was matched by the ingenuity of Savage and other engineers.

In the wake of the steam revolution an amazing variety of new designs and rides appeared. These rides were the forerunners of today's amazing thrill rides, over time innovations such as electric lighting, electric motors, hydraulics etc. allowed rides to evolve into the amazing devices that are seen today at any local fairground.

PayPal IPN – Creating Listener Code to Process IPN Messages

You have finally decided IPN is the solution to your website application. You do not want to pay someone else to do it. It can not be that hard, can it? Where can you get some practical advice from people who have been there, done that. This article will answer these questions and help you decide if you are able to write that code. If you find it too complicated there are a few commercial products out there that will handle everything for you so do not lose heart if you find yourself stuck.

PayPal IPN

Instant Payment Notification is better known as PayPal IPN and is PayPal's interface for handling real time confirmation of purchases. A typical use for IPN is where you want to use the software to download.

PayPal provide 3 different types of account. Personal, Premier and Business. You will need Premier or Business to use IPN.

Listener

PayPal IPN messages are not synchronized with actions on your website. You detect IPN messages from PayPal with a piece of code known as a listener.

You specify the URL of your listener in your PayPal account's profile but you can override this for specific transactions when you setup a button or API operation. You can also temporarily turn off the sending of IPN messages, useful if your site is down for maintenance. They are still generated and stored until you switch sending back on again.

You must perform a number of checks on the IPN message received from PayPal.

  • Check the email address to make sure it is yours
  • Check that you have not already processed the transaction identified by the transaction ID
  • Make sure that the transaction's payment status is "completed"
  • Verify that the payment amount actually matches what you intend to charge

PayPal Sandbox

When you are developing your website you really do not want to be trying to get it working by experimenting on a real money system. Any early bugs in the system could leave security holes but even if you write perfect code it is best not to do your testing using real money.

PayPal provides what they call a sandbox, almost identical to the live PayPal system. You can setup fake customers with fake money and make as many test purchases as you want. The perfect system to fully test your web application.

There is a Sandbox Forum on the developer network. It's a great place for advice.

Testing your Listener

The Sandbox has an excellent IPN Simulator (under Test Tools) which lets you choose the transaction type, fill in all the parameter values ​​and send a test IPN to a specified address.

IPN History

PayPal provides an IPN history page under the My Account tab. Click on History to see it. It includes everything you want to know about each IPN message including the following Status values.

  • Sent: indicates that PayPal sent the message to your IPN listener
  • Failed: indicates that PayPal did not receive an acknowledgment to the message
  • Queued: indicates that PayPal is ready to send the message
  • Retrying: indicates that message was resent between 1 and 15 times and PayPal continues to be resend the message
  • Disabled: indicating that the message will not be resent because the merchant's account has been disabled

Conclusion

The best place to search for information is the PayPal Integration Center which has guides, code and links for everything to do with integrating your website with PayPal.

The one place you MUST visit is the PayPal IPN Forum on the developer website. As well as a constantly changing list of discussion topics about IPN, there are some good sticky posts about troubleshooting tips, IPN variables, template code etc.

PayPal IPN is a difficult subject but the combination of an excellent testing environment in the form of the sandbox and the good quality advice provided through the forums should make it possible for you to get your website application up and running.