A Brief History Of The Traveling Funfair

Fairs in this country have a long and ancient history, deeply rooted in tradition.

The word fair is derived from the Latin 'feria', meaning a holiday and at one time the Romans were credited with the introduction of fairs.

It is now generally accepted that their origins are from pagan customs of the people who first settled this land; their seasonal gatherings held for the purposes of both trade and festivity, contained within them the essential elements of the fair.

The Romans did much to promote fairs by improving trade and communications throughout the country.

During the centuries following the departure of the Romans, many fairs and other festivals were incorporated into the calendar of the growing Christian Church. Charters granted by the sovereign gain the fair legal status and an increasing importance in the economic life of the nation.

Merchants and traders from Europe, the Middle East and beyond were drawn to the great chartered fairs of the Middle Ages bringing with them a wealth of goods.

The sheer number of these fairs, no fewer than 4860 were chartered between the years 1200 and 1400, drew not only merchant but entertainers as well: jugglers, musicians and tumblers – the ancestors of today's showmen.

The Black Death of 1348-49 thought about a new kind of fair. In order to stem the rise in wages caused by the shortage of workers, Edward III introduced the Statue of Labourers. This compelled all able bodied men to present themselly for hire at a stipulated wage. These gathering or burning fairs were held mainly around Michealmas, the end of the agricultural year.

By the early eighth century the trading aspects of the charter fairs had waned and most fairs consistently almost entirely of amusements, acrobats, illusionists and theatrical companies all plied their trade on fairgrounds.

Around this time the first fairground rides begin to appear, small crudely constructed out of wood and propelled by gangs of boys.

In 1868, Frederick Savage, a successful agricultural engineer from Kings Lynn, devised a method of driving rides by steam. His invention, a steam engine mounted in the center of the ride was to transform the fairground industry. Freed from the limitations of muscle power, rides could have made larger, more massive and more heavily ornamented. The showman's demand for novelty was matched by the ingenuity of Savage and other engineers.

In the wake of the steam revolution an amazing variety of new designs and rides appeared. These rides were the forerunners of today's amazing thrill rides, over time innovations such as electric lighting, electric motors, hydraulics etc. allowed rides to evolve into the amazing devices that are seen today at any local fairground.

PayPal IPN – Creating Listener Code to Process IPN Messages

You have finally decided IPN is the solution to your website application. You do not want to pay someone else to do it. It can not be that hard, can it? Where can you get some practical advice from people who have been there, done that. This article will answer these questions and help you decide if you are able to write that code. If you find it too complicated there are a few commercial products out there that will handle everything for you so do not lose heart if you find yourself stuck.

PayPal IPN

Instant Payment Notification is better known as PayPal IPN and is PayPal's interface for handling real time confirmation of purchases. A typical use for IPN is where you want to use the software to download.

PayPal provide 3 different types of account. Personal, Premier and Business. You will need Premier or Business to use IPN.

Listener

PayPal IPN messages are not synchronized with actions on your website. You detect IPN messages from PayPal with a piece of code known as a listener.

You specify the URL of your listener in your PayPal account's profile but you can override this for specific transactions when you setup a button or API operation. You can also temporarily turn off the sending of IPN messages, useful if your site is down for maintenance. They are still generated and stored until you switch sending back on again.

You must perform a number of checks on the IPN message received from PayPal.

  • Check the email address to make sure it is yours
  • Check that you have not already processed the transaction identified by the transaction ID
  • Make sure that the transaction's payment status is "completed"
  • Verify that the payment amount actually matches what you intend to charge

PayPal Sandbox

When you are developing your website you really do not want to be trying to get it working by experimenting on a real money system. Any early bugs in the system could leave security holes but even if you write perfect code it is best not to do your testing using real money.

PayPal provides what they call a sandbox, almost identical to the live PayPal system. You can setup fake customers with fake money and make as many test purchases as you want. The perfect system to fully test your web application.

There is a Sandbox Forum on the developer network. It's a great place for advice.

Testing your Listener

The Sandbox has an excellent IPN Simulator (under Test Tools) which lets you choose the transaction type, fill in all the parameter values ​​and send a test IPN to a specified address.

IPN History

PayPal provides an IPN history page under the My Account tab. Click on History to see it. It includes everything you want to know about each IPN message including the following Status values.

  • Sent: indicates that PayPal sent the message to your IPN listener
  • Failed: indicates that PayPal did not receive an acknowledgment to the message
  • Queued: indicates that PayPal is ready to send the message
  • Retrying: indicates that message was resent between 1 and 15 times and PayPal continues to be resend the message
  • Disabled: indicating that the message will not be resent because the merchant's account has been disabled

Conclusion

The best place to search for information is the PayPal Integration Center which has guides, code and links for everything to do with integrating your website with PayPal.

The one place you MUST visit is the PayPal IPN Forum on the developer website. As well as a constantly changing list of discussion topics about IPN, there are some good sticky posts about troubleshooting tips, IPN variables, template code etc.

PayPal IPN is a difficult subject but the combination of an excellent testing environment in the form of the sandbox and the good quality advice provided through the forums should make it possible for you to get your website application up and running.

How to Reduce Your Weight in a Week

Here’s how to reduce your weight in a week… or possibly less. I’m going to share with you a few less popular secets… things you may have heard about but really didn’t understand how they relate to weight loss. If you’re interested in perhaps learning something new about reducing fat, then read this now.

How to Reduce your Weight in a Week

1. Consider using Extra Virgin Coconut Oil

This is definitely not your typical weight loss product. It isn’t even categoried as a weight loss product. BUT IT IS. In fact, if I was forced to choose any weight loss “supplement” to take for 2 weeks in order to lose a lot of weight fast, I’d be taking this stuff.

Natural coconut oil is a healthy fat. It’s good for you… so don’t freak out about it being a fat. Don’t worry about that. The bad fats come from things in packages… manmade things. Coconuts are from nature.

Anyway, you’ll want the coconut oil that has “extra virgin” or “cold pressed” on the label… this is for purity and processing reasons. Once you get it, you simply need to take 1 tablespoon twice a day between meals on an empty stomach.

It’s common for women… and men, to lose 5 or more pounds in less than 2 weeks. The cost is about $12… so it’s not a big risk for you to take.

2. Organic apple cider vinegar

This thing is NASTY. But, people who are serious about losing weight will overlook that. I do. I love the stuff because it helps me to maintain my weight and lose weight whenever I need to drop a couple pounds, but I also hate it because it just tastes awful. A way around this is to just douse it on a salad or your foods this way it blends in and you won’t taste it as much. I however take it straight. I take a gulp of it before meals to help break down the fats and carbs in those foods.

It OBLITERATES them. When using organic apple cider vinegar, your food gets digested much faster and more efficient. This obviously helps with weight loss.

I recommend taking about a tablespoon before 2 meals… everyday.

These are 2 very good tips on how to reduce your weight in a week… so USE THEM.

Software Industry – Employment Avenues

Software industries today have become backbone for any economy in the world. They produce huge revenue and employ large numbers of IT professionals all over the world. Technology has become very advanced and is widely spread. Therefore, software industries in India and world have gained huge momentum in the recent years. There are numbers of budding software industries mushrooming in the IT market among many IT mega companies. Boom in the software domain has led to numbers of software training institutes in Delhi and other parts of India which attend courses in software development and assist in job placements as well.

The computer training institutes in Delhi or outside run various software programs which open a gateway for you to apply in various software companies. You can also seek software (Engineering) degree from the well known Engineering college of India.

Professionals from prestigious Engineering colleges are being paid very well by the IT companies. Some of the brand names of the software companies are as follows – Infosys, TCS, HCL, Microsoft, Accenture, Cognizant, IBM etc. Just to name a few.

All these mega companies offer a great future prospect and highly remunerated salary to its employees. Software industry involves much of expenditure and that, requires right solutions, proper management and infrastructure and dedicated people. Today, outsourcing has become an important feature of most IT companies. They outsource their work in order to reduce their work at reasonable rates. Outsourcing provides employment to millions of individual world-wide and promotes the rapid growth of the software companies. Half of the big IT companies are dependent upon outsourcing for their revenue and growth.

You can opt for numbers of software courses to seek employment in a software company. Some of them are listed below;

C and C ++ programming – It is a basic software course and a must to get entry into software domain.

Advanced Diploma in Software Engineering (ADSE) – This course provides numerous inputs in all important areas of Networking. It ensures you are typically groomed to meet the challenges of software companies.

Core Java- This program helps to gain proficiency in the fundamental of Java Language.

MCAD.NET (Microsoft Certified Application Developer) – This program is designed to help developers to develop their skills necessary for implementing functional specifications and maintain Microsoft windows and Web applications.

MCDBA (the Microsoft Certified Database Administrator) – This program is intended for the individuals who implement and administrator Microsoft SQL Server Databases.

Indian software industries are thriving rapidly and they are offering software Engineers excellent opportunities of growth and promotions. These Software engineers also have the privilege to work in international projects and sites. The growth and promotion depend upon their qualifications, experience, job performance and attitude. The future of software professionals is very bright and promising

Today India is also considered a hub of IT world and technology after US. The metropolitan cities of India such Delhi, Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai are some of the major epicenter of software industries in India. A large number of the mega software companies from abroad have come down to these cities and invested millions in setting up their offices and business. Today, a large amount of Indian economy is dependent upon IT industry and any set-back in this industry could seriously hinder the development and functioning of the economy at a large scale.

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